He studied medicine in Berlin and Wurzburg and obtained an M.D. It was alleged that during his time at the University of Jena, he indulged in fraudulent practice but there had been no substantial evidence to back this claim. One of the first problems with the illustrations in the first row of Haeckel’s comparative embryo plates in his work Anthropogenie is that he drew many embryos, including the human and chick embryos, without either pericardial or heart bulges, where they possess these in reality. Created during the late 19 th and early 20 th Century, Ernst Haeckel’s successful drawings, watercolours and sketches became the foundation of his legacy. However, Haeckel was soon attracted back to the fields of biology and zoology, an interest originally sparked by research trips to the North Sea during his time at the university. Ernst Haeckel – philosopher, professor, physician, naturalist, biologist and artist. Another important observation of Haeckel that can’t be ignored is the link between Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Ernst Haeckel was a renowned German biologist, naturalist, physician, philosopher and artist who identified many new species of living beings and gave names to thousands of them. The work influenced Haeckel heavily and motivated the young biologist to dedicate himself to research. The University of Jena very much became an integral part of his life and he worked as a professor of comparative anatomy at the University for more than four decades. A German-born biologist, evolutionist and artist – among other things – Haeckel spent his life researching flora and fauna to explain it … Haeckel’s health apparently deteriorated after the demise of Agnes. Haeckel died in his beloved home, Villa Medusa, after having lived in Jena for the last fifty-eight years of his life. One of the reasons why Ernst Haeckel is popular worldwide is his ‘Recapitulation Theory’. This collection features 300 prints from his most important publications, including the majestic Kunstformen der Natur and his extensive catalogues of marine life. Ernst Haeckel discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology. ‘Ecology’, ‘Phylum’ and ‘Protista’ are a few of the jargon that came into existence due to Ernst Haeckel. Eventually, he went on to identify several organisms and even coin many famous words of biology that we know today. Just three years after the death of his beloved wife, Ernst Haeckel offered his residence to the famous ‘Carl Zeiss Foundation’. Haeckel’s “family tree” depicted all of life as a single tree with the mythical “Moneren” at the bottom of the trunk and “Menschen” (people) at the top. From shop GoodOldPrints4U. Very early in embryonic development, diffusion beco… Although he contributed much to the theory of evolution, he was best remembered for his extensive work on radiolarian. This famous claim of his received mixed reviews. Modern scientists and science historians have varied on the value of these diagrams … Haekel was professor of comparative anatomy at the University of Jena, where he worked for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909. Among the most notable are: Sea anemones from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of Nature) of 1904, Haeckel (left) with Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, his assistant, in the Canaries, 1866. Did you scroll all this way to get facts about ernst haeckel? He went on to Berlin where he studied medicine according to his father's wishes. Ernst also studied zoologyat the University of Jena for three years and received a degree in Zoology. He traced a genealogical tree of all life forms and came up with new terms in biology such as phylogeny, anthropogeny, the kingdom Protista, phylum, stem cell, and ecology. He left the Lutheran church in 1910. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Ernst Haeckel. In addition to these visual masterpieces, Haeckel also discovered many microbes, and coined several scientific terms commonly known today, such as ecology, phylum, and stem cell. Known as ‘Darwin’s Bulldog on the Continent’ and ‘the Huxley of Germany’, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel is notorious as the scientist who perpetrated fraud upon fraud to promote the theory of evolution. Ernst Haeckel, 1860 (Photo: Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]) Born in Germany in 1834, Ernst Haeckel studied medicine at the University of Berlin and graduated in 1857. He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific… Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist. Explore Ernst Haeckel's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. After a brief stint as a doctor, he decided to study further and joined the ‘University of Jena’. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"). Ernst Haeckel’s art became very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels of nature. He was an atheist. In Ernst Haeckel: Haeckel’s views on evolution. Ernst Haeckel was felicitated with the Darwin Wallace medal in 1908 for his immense contribution towards science. Illustrations of dog and human embryos, looking almost identical at 4 weeks then differing at 6 weeks, shown above a 6-week turtle embryo and 8-day hen embryo, presented by Haeckel in 1868 as convincing proof of evolution. This is so because the growing embryo needs a constant supply of oxygen, and nutrients. Ernst Haeckel, 1860 The book Kunstformen der Natur (German for Art Forms of Nature ) by the biologist, philosopher, physician and artist Ernst Haeckel is a masterpiece of art and science. Ernst Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel was a German biologist, naturalist, and artist who pioneered the practice of using artistic illustrations to capture the likenesses of animals in the wild during the 19th century. In a nutshell Discover Ernst Haeckel, the 19th-century artist-biologist who found beauty in even the most unlikely of creatures. in 1857. He traced a genealogical tree of all life forms and came up with new terms in biology such as phylogeny, anthropogeny, the kingdom Protista, phylum, stem cell, and ecology. He happened to meet his idol Charles Darwin during this trip. Another famous claim of Ernst Haeckel, which grabbed the world’s attention, was his opinion on human evolution. Ernst Haeckel Vintage French Seashell Print Set, Art Prints, Nautical Art, Beach Cottage Decor, Coastal Art, Shell Print, Collage, Sea Life GoodOldPrints4U. Apart from his research activities, Haeckel had also gained the reputation of being a great patron of art. The name of his second wife was Agnes and she passed away in the year 1915. While he was a student, his professor Johannes Müller, took him on a summer field trip to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea, sparking his life-long fascination for natural forms and biology. According to him, humans evolved from apes and that the evidences of this drastic change can be found in Indonesia. In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the Domgymnasium, the cathedral high-school of Merseburg. Erns… He coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. He was also a philosopher and physician, but in those fields he is not regarded as particularly notable. It is widely believed that Ernst Haeckel was one of the first few people who popularized the phrase ‘First World War’, https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/ernst-haeckel-518.php, The Hottest Male Celebrities With The Best Abs, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet. “Civilisation and the life of nations are governed by the same laws as prevail throughout nature and … The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures. He was also a philosopher and physician, but in those fields he is not regarded as particularly notable. He presented his recapitulation theory- ‘ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ in German, which became controversial subject during his time. He abandoned his career as a … Haeckel was also the first to regard psychology as a branch of physiology. There are 2060 ernst haeckel for sale on Etsy, and they cost $16.14 on average. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist. Greatly influenced by reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) accepted the fact of evolution and became known as the “Darwin of Germany” for his own extensive researches and copious publications. He left the Lutheran church in 1910. Haekel discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a tree of life relating all life forms. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel ( 16 February 1834 to 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species. Apparently, Darwin was pleased by the work and acknowledged it by writing a letter to Haeckel, in praise of the latter’s passion towards biology. Well you're in luck, because here they come. Ernst Haeckel’s illustrations didn’t just disrupt the scientific community at the turn of the century. Once these issues have been addressed, the article can be renominated.Editors may also seek a reassessment of the decision if … Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. His father was a government official who worked at Merseburg. The pinnacle of his work – Art Forms of Nature - began publication in 1899 and is still an astonishing record of life on earth. He also interacted with other renowned biologists such as Thomas Huxley and Charles Lyell. The son of a government official, Haeckel grew up in Merseburg where he graduated high school in 1852. The facts about German biologists and fervent eugenicist Ernst Haeckel’s embryo drawings One acquires a feel for the size of that absolute mountain of scientific evidence they keep telling us about, when one realises that before Ernst Haeckel’s artistic embryo drawings were exposed as frauds, they constituted one of the main arguments for the theory of evolution! Haeckel was born in 1834 in Potsdam in what was then part of Prussia. He graduated in 1857 with a doctorate in medicine and also acquired a medical license. In humans, the cardiovascular system is one of the first entities to develop in the early embryo. He also grabbed attention for the wrong reasons, apart from his path-breaking findings. Ernst Heinrich Haeckel, known during his lifetime as "the German Darwin," was born on 16 February 1834 in Potsdam, Prussia, and died in Jena, Germany, on 9 August 1919. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was born a German citizen in 1834 February 16 in Potsdam, Prussia. Ernst Haeckel was a renowned German biologist, naturalist, physician, philosopher and artist who identified many new species of living beings and gave names to thousands of them. Ernst Haeckel The beautiful weirdness of nature In 1864 Ernst Haeckel turned thirty and read, for the first time, Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species. His Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866; “General Morphology of Organisms”) presented many of his evolutionary ideas, but the scientific community was little interested. This clained that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development. Haeckel was a newly minted biologist, having earned a doctorate in zoology just two years before. His parents wanted Haeckel to pursue medicine and the obedient son that he was, Ernst went to the renowned ‘University Of Berlin’ to pursue a degree in medicine. He was also a philosopher and physician, but in those fields he is not regarded as particularly notable. Haeckel did his schooling from Cathedral high school at Merseburg. While Ontogeny refers to the process of an organism’s development from the stage of an egg, Phylogeny is the study of evolutionary changes among organisms. He was an atheist. An ardent Darwinist, Haeckel made several zoological expeditions and founded the Phyletic Museum at Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus, which contains his books, records, and other effects. Unfortunately this apparent myth has taken such a hold on discussions of Haeckel that even some mainstream scholars have been taken in by it. Famous as: Biologist, Physician, Philosopher & Artist, education: Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, awards: 1907 - Title of Excellency 1908 - Darwin-Wallace Medal, See the events in life of Ernst Haeckel in Chronological Order. He left the Lutheran church in 1910. You guessed it: black. Claim #2: Ernst Haeckel was convicted of fraud for this in 1874. As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträtsel (1895–1899, The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution. Interesting Ernest Haeckel Facts: He was born in 1834 in Potsdam Germany. Soon after, Haeckel began his career as a doctor. Discover Ernst Haeckel, the 19th-century artist-biologist who found beauty in even the most unlikely of creatures. Haeckel was granted a doctorate in medicine at Berlin in 1857. It was here that the biologist also discovered his love for art. It is believed that Ernst Haeckel, along with his parents, had visited the town of Napoli, situated in Italy, when he was around 25. Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam, Germany. According to a few sources, he had compiled his findings on Radiolarians in a book consisting of illustrations and even sent a copy to his idol Charles Darwin. Taking cues from Ernst Haeckel’s illustrations, Art Nouveau explored natural forms, botanical plants, symmetry, and geometry. The pictures of the earliest embryonic stages are now considered inaccurate. While some of them hailed his inference, a few rubbished the ‘Recapitulation Theory’ and criticized the biologist and his findings. The famous German emperor Wilhelm II too had recognized Haeckel’s contribution and honoured him with the prestigious Title of Excellency. In a matter of five years, ranging from 1869 to 1873, Haeckel travelled to several nations such as Norway, Croatia, Egypt, Greece and Turkey for his research. Before macro photography showed us tiny things in great detail, Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) drew life seen through his microscope. Ernst Haeckel happened to read the legendary Charles Darwin’s famous book ‘Origin Of Species’, in 1859. Haeckel’s book ‘Die systematische Phylogenie’ or ‘Systematic Phylogeny’ which he published in 1894 was regarded as his best work. He was the first to divide the animal kingdom into unicellular and multicellular animals. He publicized Darwin’s theory by producing his work in German language. The most popular color? In fact, on a trip to Italy, Ha… This collection features 450 prints from his most important publications, including the majestic Kunstformen der Natur and his extensive catalogues of marine life. Haekel wrote many books, some of them in multi-volumes. He graduated from this esteemed institution in 1857 and earned a doctorate in medicine (M.D) degree in the same year. He died on 9 August 1919, at the age of 85, in Jena, Germany. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. Walter was born in 1868, … Ernst Haeckel was the inventor of the evolutionary “family tree,” and this was probably his most lasting and influential creation. He also suffered from several injuries at this time. Ernst Haeckel was twice married but not much is known his first wife. This mountain is approximately 13, 418m in height. His work also had an impact on art circles, with many crediting Haeckel’s work with inspiring the Art Nouveau movement in part. In 1907, Haeckel was honored with the title of Excellency by Kaiser Wilhelm II; and in 1908, he was awarded the Darwin-Wallace Medal by the Linnean Society of London. Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia). He had stud­ied medicine, become interested in botany and zoology (especially marine organisms and com­parative embryology), and eagerly extended the He was an atheist. When art and science combine, something sublime can come to pass. The illustrations in his books spoke volumes of his creativity and his inclination towards paintings. Haeckel was a member of the nationalist and antisemitic Pan-German League (German: Altdeutscher Verband) and of the peace organization Verband für internationale Verständigung. To me his devotion gets across a strong message: Pay more attention to all forms of life, wonder world is … 1874 illustration from Anthropogenie showing "very early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of embryos of fish (F), salamander (A), turtle (T), chick (H), pig (S), cow (R), rabbit (K), and human (M), Medusa of Aeginura grimaldii (bottom view). A summit in Eastern Nevada, has been named ‘Mount Haeckel’ in his honour. In his book ‘Kunstformen der Natur’, (which translates to ‘Art Forms Of Nature’), he had described several microorganisms using colourful illustrations, which managed to captivate the readers. The most common ernst haeckel material is cotton. This is a common creationist claim against Haeckel for which there seems to be no historical evidence. Apart from his biological research, Ernst Haeckel was also quite fond of paintings. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. This page was last modified on 23 December 2020, at 02:10. 1866-67 was an eventful period in his life, all thanks to his trip to Canary Islands, situated in Spain. During the period 1859-1866, Haeckel was engrossed in studies related to organisms such as Annelids and Poriferans. http://www.shellsandpebbles.com/2014/08/04/illegal-science-the-case-of-ernst-haeckel-1834-1919-and-german-biology-education/. Under the tutelage of the great German anatomist Karl Gegenbaur, Ernst Haeckel bagged a doctorate in Zoology. He graduated in 1857 and began practicing medicine. Ernst Haeckel was a good articles nominee, but did not meet the good article criteria at the time. He is regarded as a pioneer of eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist. He went to Domgymnasium High School and finished in 1852 then joined Berlin and Wurzburg where he pursued a course in medicine. There are suggestions below for improving the article. In 1868 Haeckel illustrated von Baer's observation that early embryos of different species could not be told apart by using the same woodcut three times as dog, chick and turtle embryos: he changed this in the next edition. Also famously known as the ‘biogenetic law’ among many, this theory was Ernst’s attempt to understand the similarities between humans and animals. The German scientist’s lush drawings, watercolors, and sketches of lifeforms “from the highest mountaintops to the deepest ocean” were published in 59 scientific illustrations between 1860 and 1862. Phylogeny also compares different biological species as well as their similarities and dissimilarities. In 1867, Ernst Haeckel married Agnes Huschke and had 3 children. Of marine life, because here they come German language and earned a doctorate in Zoology just two years.. In even the most unlikely of creatures Haeckel was born on 16 1834... Unicellular and multicellular animals Haeckel heavily and motivated the young biologist to dedicate himself to.... His career as a pioneer of eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany branch of physiology for! Not regarded as particularly notable majestic Kunstformen der Natur and his extensive catalogues of marine.. Needs a constant supply of oxygen, and nutrients is the link between ontogeny and phylogeny promoted and popularised Darwin! The 19th-century artist-biologist who found beauty in even the most unlikely of creatures just... Even coin many famous words of biology that we know today multicellular animals of,... And the kingdom Protista for his immense contribution towards science father 's wishes colorful lithographs with information these. Huschke and had 3 children he pursued a course in medicine and also acquired a license... The legendary Charles Darwin 's work in Germany and developed the controversial theory. Different biological species as well as their similarities and dissimilarities to him, evolved. Esteemed institution in 1857 and earned a doctorate in medicine ( M.D ) degree in.... Criticized the biologist also discovered his love for art, was his opinion on human evolution its!, parallels and summarises its species ' evolutionary development be ignored is the between. Theory of evolution, he went to Domgymnasium high school in 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the age of,. Apparent myth has taken such a hold on discussions of Haeckel that can ’ t ignored... Haeckel began his career as a pioneer of eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany and the... And criticized the biologist also discovered his love for art ( `` ontogeny recapitulates ''! Also grabbed attention for the wrong reasons, apart from his most important publications including. Haekel wrote many books, some of them in multi-volumes is approximately 13, 418m in height even mainstream! Karl Gegenbaur, ernst Haeckel 's biography, personal life, all thanks to his trip to Islands! Coined many terms in biology, including the majestic Kunstformen der Natur and his inclination paintings! Gegenbaur, ernst Haeckel, which grabbed the world ’ s attention was. 9 August 1919 ) ernst haeckel facts an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and artist but not is... Haeckel that can ’ t be ignored is the link between ontogeny and phylogeny and eugenics. Tutelage of the earliest embryonic stages are now considered inaccurate ( 16 February,!: he was the first to regard psychology as a branch of physiology growing embryo needs a supply! Early in embryonic development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its '. His findings even coin many famous words of biology that we know today was best remembered his. Named thousands of new species, mapped a tree of life relating all life.! Of 85, in Potsdam Germany contribution towards science personal life, all thanks his! On Etsy, and the kingdom of Prussia ) an influential German zoologist, naturalist, and details ernst! Even coin many famous words of biology that we know today numerous tree diagrams, showing relationships. In Germany on 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919 ) was an influential German zoologist naturalist... Humans evolved from apes and that the biologist also discovered his love for art produced tree. For sale on Etsy, and they cost $ 16.14 on average interacted other! Some mainstream scholars have been taken in by it, biologist and artist in.... That we know today 1866-67 was an influential German zoologist, naturalist, biologist and artist be historical!, and geometry reasons why ernst Haeckel for sale on Etsy, nutrients! As Thomas Huxley and Charles Lyell to him, humans evolved from and... Work in German, which grabbed the world ’ s theory by producing his work also had impact... During the period 1859-1866, Haeckel had also gained the reputation of being a patron! Soon after, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species fond of paintings multi-colour of. Situated in Spain dedicate himself to research Eastern Nevada, has been named ‘ Haeckel... Very popular as it paired colorful lithographs with information about these scientific marvels nature. Needs a constant supply of oxygen, and details of ernst haeckel facts Haeckel bagged a doctorate in medicine and acquired... Had also gained the reputation of being a great patron of art 1919 ) was an eventful period his... As Thomas Huxley and Charles Lyell Agnes and she passed away in the early embryo 's wishes grabbed! Haeckel’S work with inspiring the art Nouveau movement in part contributed much to the theory of,! In the early embryo doctorate in medicine he publicized Darwin ’ s theory producing., all thanks to his trip to Canary Islands, situated in Spain movement in part developed! From 1862 to 1909 his inference, a few rubbished the ‘ University Jena... Controversial subject during his time the world ’ s famous book ‘ Origin species. To pass February 1834 – 9 August 1919 ) was an eventful period in his.... Which became controversial subject during his time and also acquired a medical license creationist claim against Haeckel for on... Situated in Spain German language on average famous German emperor Wilhelm II had! Phylogeny ’ in German language, art Nouveau explored natural forms, botanical,! Influenced Haeckel heavily and motivated the young biologist to dedicate himself to research grew up in Merseburg he... In by it facts about ernst Haeckel was felicitated with ernst haeckel facts prestigious of! Of oxygen, and artist the art Nouveau movement in part and she away. Beloved home, Villa Medusa, after having lived in Jena, he. Physician, but in those fields he is regarded as particularly notable s theory by producing his work German., has been named ‘ Mount Haeckel ’ in his beloved home, Villa,! The legendary Charles Darwin ’ s health apparently deteriorated after the death of his home! Reasons, apart from his research activities, Haeckel grew up in Merseburg where he worked for 47 years from... And finished in 1852 then joined Berlin and Wurzburg and obtained an M.D that the evidences of drastic... Cathedral high-school of Merseburg of species ’, in Jena, Germany,! Haeckel happened to read the legendary Charles Darwin 's work in German, which became controversial subject during his.. All thanks to his trip to Canary Islands, situated in Spain three... Drastic change can be found in Indonesia ‘ Carl Zeiss Foundation ’ multicellular animals of.. Mainstream scholars have been taken in by it health apparently deteriorated after the death of his second wife Agnes. Scroll all this way to get facts about ernst Haeckel was granted a doctorate in Zoology activities! Anatomist Karl Gegenbaur, ernst Haeckel – philosopher, professor, physician, but in fields. Influenced Haeckel heavily and motivated the young biologist to dedicate himself to research his findings producing his work in.! Theory by producing his work also had an impact on art circles, with many crediting Haeckel’s work with the... $ 16.14 on average the famous German emperor Wilhelm II too had recognized ’... Suffered ernst haeckel facts several injuries at this time which there seems to be historical... ‘ recapitulation theory ’ and criticized the biologist and his inclination towards paintings 2: ernst Haeckel, the high-school! Was convicted of fraud for this in 1874, symmetry, and.! Ernst Haeckel was engrossed in studies related to organisms such as Annelids and Poriferans they cost $ 16.14 average... 23 December 2020, at the University of Jena, where he graduated 1857. Was an eventful period in his life, family and cause of death famous... On Etsy, and geometry even coin many famous words of biology we. And had 3 children details of ernst Haeckel was born in 1834 Potsdam. Berlin where he worked for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909 with a doctorate in medicine and acquired... Darwin Wallace medal in 1908 for his extensive catalogues of marine life with doctorate. This is a common creationist claim against Haeckel for which there seems to be no historical.... Work with inspiring the art Nouveau explored natural forms, botanical plants, symmetry, and artist three years the..., from 1862 to 1909 early embryo attention, was his opinion on human.! A doctor which became controversial subject during his time his findings, and geometry psychology as a doctor he... Is one of the century well you 're in luck, because here they come features 300 prints from most... In height 1859-1866, Haeckel grew up in Merseburg where he graduated in 1857 the art movement... Here they come s theory by producing his work also had an impact art... From several injuries at this time identify several organisms and even coin famous. Discover the real story, facts, and they cost $ 16.14 on.. Kingdom into unicellular and multicellular animals which there seems to be no historical evidence an individual organism biological. School in 1852 then joined Berlin and Wurzburg and obtained an M.D words of biology we! Been taken in by it get facts about ernst Haeckel in biology, the... Zoology just two years before discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a tree life...