Firstly, adjust the position of the separating board of the ball mill. Blast furnace slag is a non-metallic residue usually obtained from steel plants or from the reduction of ores in a blast furnace. SCA member companies supply over 95 percent of the slag cement in the U.S. Slag cement use can be traced to the 1700’s when the material was combined with lime to make mortars. For information on proportioning and a table of suggested percentages for various applications and end results, see SCIC #2, Concrete Proportioning. Molten slag is tapped from a blast furnace, rapidly quenched with water ("granulated"), dried and ground to a fine powder. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. Slag cement is a white-colored hydraulic cement that will lighten the color of fully hardened, cured concrete. Mass concrete utilizes the highest potential levels of slag percentage to provide effective heat mitigation and reduced thermal stress. The ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is a by-product of iron manufacturing which when added to concrete improves its properties such as workability, strength and durability. Of course, with the latest trend of recycling society, the effective utilization of blast furnace slag has already attracted people’s attention. The main use of granulated blast furnace slag is cement production [4], but GBFS can also be used as any other additive to concrete or as part of alkali activated materials. Slag cement or GGBFS is granulated blast-furnace slag that has been finely ground and that is hydraulic cement. Applications For more information, see, Sulfate attack occurs when sulfates, found in seawater and some soils, react with the tricalcium aluminate in portland cement. It also has the same or better water permeability as high-quality sand. Civil engineering works. Most general or structural concrete applications (flatwork, paving, foundations, walls, columns, floors, etc. ) The heart of the process is the blast furnace that refines iron ore into iron. Ground granulated blast furnace slag cement (GGBFS) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties. For more information, see, Mass concrete applications require limitations on the temperature differential between the surface and center of concrete to guard against thermal cracking. BFS is typically a grey vesicular material that is lighter than most basalt. Slag cement (also called ground granulated blast furnace slag) is a hydraulic cement produced during the reduction of iron ore to iron in a blast furnace. The blast furnace slag can be crushed and processed into blast furnace slag aggregate by roller crusher and ground granulated blast furnace slag by ball mill. For constructions meant for water retaining such as rivers, retaining wall, harbors, tunnels for improvement in impenetrability. It also dramatically lowers the rate of chloride ion diffusion and carbonation, thus significantly enhancing the corrosion protection offered by the concrete to the reinforcing steel. For more information, see, ASR occurs when the alkalis in portland cement react with certain reactive aggregates to form an expansive gel that causes the concrete to crack, swell and prematurely deteriorate. It is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast furnace. The molten slag must first be separated from the molten iron. The processed BFS aggregate does not contain organic impurities, clay, shells or similar materials, and has many valuable properties, which is one of the reasons for chemical reactions with alkaline aggregates. The length of the first bin can be shortened to 2.6m and the second increased to 3.9m to enhance the grinding capacity of the ball mill. Greening is not harmful, and is almost always temporary. The rapid quenching "freezes" the molten slag in a glassy state, which gives the product its cementitious properties. The molten slag can also be quickly cooled by a column of pressurized water to form a glassy granular slag. The fineness of discharge can be controlled to 2-10mm with a handling capacity of 40 tons per hour. Slag cement improves many of the strength and durability properties of hardened concrete. When pig iron is smelted in a blast furnace, the flux is added to the raw materials from the blast furnace in addition to iron ore and fuel (coke). Once fully solidified, it will not liquefy during an earthquake, so no additional liquefaction measures are necessary. In some architectural applications, where white cement might normally be used to achieve a white look, slag cement (or a combination of slag cement and white cement) can be utilized, as was the case with the Canadian Embassy. The concretes that contain blast furnace slag cement have less permeability, low hydration heat, better operability and processability, higher strength, and higher resistance to hazardous chemicals and Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. It has been found that using a slag mix for cementing is beneficial economically and technically as well as better for the environment than Portland cement. At this point, the particle size of slag is mostly <5mm. However, applications that will not be exposed to air and will be constantly moist may have permanent greening, such as swimming pools; therefore SCA suggests that slag cement not be use in this type of application when aesthetic concerns are important (greening will have no effect on other concrete properties, such as strength or durability). It is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast furnace. When used as part of a portland cement concrete, slag reacts with both the water (latent hydraulic reaction) and the hydrated cement paste (pozzolanic reaction), resulting in a … The focus is to enhance the grinding function of the ball mill. Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) is a by-product of iron and steel-making obtained by quenching molten iron slag from a blast furnace in water or steam. More information can be found in SCA's SCIC #10 and in a "Problem Clinic" discussion in Concrete Producer magazine. Uses of Blast-Furnace Slag Cement In ready mix concrete plants. Using granulated blast furnace slag can save energy by 20-40%, reduce costs by 10-30%, and reduce CO 2 emissions by 44%. The report models supply and demand for fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag up to 2030. Blast furnace slag is a by-product of the iron and steel industry. The output of the ball mill is 6.5 t/h, reaching the average hourly output with the comprehensive power consumption per unit 71 kW.h /t. The additional CSH formed and denser cement paste in slag cement concrete reduce pore size and lower concrete permeability, often by several orders of magnitude. This process produces sand-sized (or fleet-like) fragments, often with some fragile clinker. Not only does the making of slag cement lessen the burden on landfills, but it also reduces air emissions at steel plants through the granulation process (as compared to the traditional air cooling process). What Are the Uses of Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). Slag is primarily composed of CaO, SiO 2, aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Slag cement, originally known as granulated blast-furnace slag, begins with the production of iron. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is designated in ASTM C 989 and consists mainly of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium. Slag cement is most widely used in concrete, either as a separate cementitious component or as part of a blended cement. Slag cement is the hydraulic cement that results when molton slag from an iron blast furnace is rapidly quenched with water, dried and ground to a fine powder. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, more commonly referred to as slag or slag cement, is a by-product of steel production. What’s the Difference Between Ball Mill, Rod Mill and SAG Mill? Until the 1950’s, granulated slag was used in the manufacture of blended portland cements, or as raw feedstock to make cement clinker. Precast and prestressed concrete is an excellent application for slag cement at levels between 20 and 50 percent. Address: No.168 Wutong Street, High-Tech Industrial Development Zone of Zhengzhou City, China. It is pozzolanic with some self-cementing properties. Slag cement concrete may experience some initial "greening" after placement but this temporary color change will disappear with exposure to light and air (see related FAQ on greening and SCIC #10, "Greening"). It is estimated that for every ton of pig iron produced, the amount of slag produced is about 300 kg. SCA normally suggests that concrete that displays greening be left alone, and the greening will disappear. The It takes longer to harden, which can be used to create a thinner pavement than using natural gravel (i.e., mechanically stable gravel). Blast furnace slag aggregate comes in two forms: For more information on slag aggregates, visit the National Slag Association's website. Used as a coarse aggregate in concrete, blast furnace slag reduces concrete workability but increases compressive strength, while the splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity are similar to those of conventional concrete [49]. As a road structure, it has the advantage with its hydraulic property that will not cause strength loss due to seepage under traffic loading. With the use of the ball mill, the granular slag can be processed into ultrafine slag powder. This is normally a temporary condition and the concrete, upon exposure to air and sunlight, will ultimately become lighter than 100% portland cement concrete. The first United States production was in 1896. The quality control of Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag manufacture is in five stages: Purchase of slag from a supplier with a long history of producing a consistent and quality product. If it can be used reasonably, it will save a lot of energy and resources. Portland Blast-furnace Slag Cement. Additionally, the improved reflectivity may reduce lighting requirements for streets or parking facilities, and certainly improves safety with brighter streetscapes at night. Thus with the higher compressive strengths achievable with slag cement, structural stiffness can be enhanced, and load deflections minimized. Today, in the European cement regulations, there are fourteen types of cement containing blast furnace slag [4]. GGBS Concrete GGBS Proportions On its own, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) hardens very slowly and, for use in concrete, it needs to be activated by combining it with Portland cement. This causes an expansive reaction and resulting deterioration of the concrete structure. Use of Blast Furnace Slag in Road Construction 23. It is called almighty engineering aggregate. Slag Cement The blast furnace slag cement is used in the world in order to increase the strength of the concrete and reduce the costs. In addition, its hydraulic property makes it hydrate and solidify over time, resulting in high resistance to liquefaction during earthquakes. Use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag: There are two major uses of Ground granulated blast furnace slag, In the production of high quality-improved slag cement, such as Portland Blast furnace cement (PBFC) and high slag blast furnace cement (HSBFC). The latent hydraulic property of the blast-furnace slag gives excellent long-term strength. In addition to cost performance and operability, it also offers excellent durability. A list of improvements to hardened concrete follows, with a link to individual Slag Cement in Concrete information sheets for further detail: Production of slag cement creates a value-added product from a material—blast furnace slag—that otherwise might be destined for disposal. Properties Significant chemoresistance, and Suppression of alkali-aggregate reaction (type B and C). A crystal structure will form, resulting in hard, lump slag. Just like Portland cement, GGBFS must be finely ground before it can be used in concrete. GGBFS is divided into three classifications based on its activity index. It is claimed that, concrete incorporating slag perform better in terms of permeability compare with controlled concrete because blast furnace slag in cement paste decreases the size of pores and consequently the permeability of slag concrete is declined. During the molten cooling and hardening of blast furnace slag, different cooling methods can be adopted to form various types of blast furnace slag products. In general, concrete containing BFS aggregates has similar plastic properties to natural aggregate. In many cases, the performance of hardened concrete is improved when BFS aggregates are added to properly designed blends. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is environmentally sustainable and prevalent in the cement industry, but the original alkali-activated slag binder cannot be used for mine backfilling. Slag cement concrete sometimes turns green for a short period of time due to the oxidation state of sulfide sulphur compounds during portland/slag cement hydration. When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace. Hiraskar and Chetan Patil Abstract-The Iron industries produce a huge quantity of blast furnace slag as by–product, which is a non–biodegradable waste material from that only a small percentage of it is used by cement industries to manufacture cement. It works synergistically with portland cement to increase strength, reduce permeability, improve resistance to chemical attack and inhibit rebar corrosion. Quality situation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) produced: The value of the specific surface area of the slag powder produced by our factory can be control from 420 to 450m2/kg and the average specific surface area 402m2/kg. It is lighter than natural sand (11-16 kN/m3) and has a large shear angle (above 35℃). In this study, slag cement (SC) is used to prepare different slag cement mortar (SCM) mixes to study mortar microstructure perspectives, physiochemical properties, mechanical properties and durability performance. Optimum slag cement percentage for maximum strength development is generally between 40 and 50 percent. Because of the fertilizer components CaO, SiO2 and MgO in ground granulated blast furnace slag, it is used as calcium silicate fertilizer in rice cultivation. It can be broadly categorized into air-cooled slag and granulated slag. Use of slag cement in concrete reduces the environmental impact of concrete by: The Environmental Protection Agency recognizes the environmental benefits of using slag cement in concrete. This product is usually intended to be used in concrete either as an element of composite cement such as Blast furnace Cement/High Slag Blast Furnace Cement or as a straight addition to the concrete mix by the concrete producer. Reducing the "urban heat island" effect by making concrete lighter in color thus reflecting more light and cooling structures and pavements with exposed concrete. Slag cement is used in virtually all concrete applications: Slag cement is also used in non-concrete applications such as soil-cement and hazardous waste solidification. Using GGBFS as a coastal protection backfill material can take advantage of its light weight and large shear angle to effectively reduce the earth pressure of the front sheet pile and reduce the sheet pile section. The amount of slag cement added to a concrete mixture, as a percentage of cementitious material by weight, normally ranges from 20 to 80 percent. These two materials can be widely used in construction, infrastructure and agriculture. The molten slag at a temperature of about 1500°C Slag cement, when used as a separate component in a concrete mixture, is specified through ASTM C 989 Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortar. Concrete made of BFS aggregates can be pumped, placed and refined successfully. Make this into a paste, apply and leave for a few minutes, wash off thoroughly, and let it take effect. The pavilion is the largest, most advanced children’s outpatient facility in the region. In such cements GGBS content ranges typically from 30 to 70%. Secondly, transform the partition board to 2mm, so that the slag can be well broken in the first bin and the slag with particle size <2mm enters the second bin for grinding. Little or no crystallization occurs when the slag is cooled and rapidly quenched to a glassy state. It is used as a mud cake modifier for the cementing of oil and gas wells.. Used to increase the strength of concrete and used to improve workability of fresh concrete and reduce water demand, shrinkage and permeability of the finished product. Have any question? Slag cement helps in two ways: 1) reduced permeability reduces the ingress of deleterious sulfates into the concrete and 2) slag cement does not contain tricalcium aluminate, and thus lowers the total amount available for reaction. The product is now widely available east of the Rockies. Generally, high replacement rates are required (50 to 80%) to meet low heat of hydration requirements for mass applications. The lighter color of slag cement concrete (compared with concrete made with other cementitous materials - see photo) is generally considered to be a positive benefit, as it not only improves the aesthetic look of concrete, but also increases concrete's reflectivity (albedo) which provides greater mitigation of the "urban heat island effect" (see SCIC #22, "Slag Cement and the Environment"). The composition of slag essentially depends on the raw materials used in the iron production process. Also, concrete with coarse slag aggregate is more resistant to high temperatures; that is, this concrete has more residual compressive strength than conventional concrete. The use of slag cement with a Type I portland cement can provide equivalence to a Type II (moderate sulfate-resistant) or even a Type V (high sulfate-resistant) cement. Use of blast-furnace slag's as • Sand and gravel for the construction of road beds, • Basic filler in asphalt–concrete mixtures for the construction of road and airport coatings, • Unroasted cement (binder) for reinforcing roadways and • Preparing slow-setting concrete. BFS aggregate results in a better cement paste-aggregate interaction due to its vesicle nature. The condition is prolonged with extended moist curing, or on formed surfaces, especially when the form is left on for extended periods. Slag cement generally improves workability, finishability and pumpability of plastic concrete. For more information, see. For instance, one combination of portland and slag cement, in combination with a highly reactive aggregate may need as much as 70 percent slag cement to mitigate ASR, while a less reactive aggregate, combined with a lower alkali cement and slag cement may only need 25 percent. Granulated blast furnace slag for civil engineering is used for bank protection, soft soil filling, road subgrade, embankment, etc. Slag Cement Benefits and Use in Concrete. A Manufacturer’s Test Certificate is obtained before purchasing slag. If the GGBFS is ground by itself, it can be blended mechanically with cement at the cement mill to make ASTM C595, Type IS, Portland blast-furnace slag cement, or it can be added at the concrete plant to make slag concrete. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) has been constantly in use as cement replacement for sustainable infrastructure. 3-5), also called slag cement, is made from iron blast-furnace slag; it is a nonmetallic hydraulic cement consisting essentially of sili-cates and aluminosilicates of calcium developed in a molten condition simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. Iron both collect at the bottom of the strength and durability properties of hardened concrete is an material! 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